Mon 17 Oct 2022

Musings on Python Type Hints

Shortly after the release of TypeScript, Guido van Rossum and Ivan Levkivskyi created PEP 483 proposing a type hinting system for Python. Notably absent from this proposal is any "official" type checking program for verifying the correctness of type hints. As a result, there are four "major" type checkers for python:

  • mypy: A very early project (starting in 2012) from Jukka Lehtosalo. mypy and its predecessors have heavily influenced direction of python type hints. mypy has been supported heavily by Jukka's employer Dropbox. mypy is arguably the most popular type checker for Python.
  • pyright: A type checker built by Microsoft with great VS Code and LSP integration. Pyright was first released in 2019 and is bundled in the Microsoft Python extension for VS Code.
  • pytype: A static type analyzer built by Google. Pytype was first released in 2018 and emphasizes type inference and local leniency.
  • pyre: A static type checker built by Meta. Designed for large code bases and first-class integration with Buck, Meta's build system. The first release I can find dates back to 2019.

Source: Musings on Python Type Hints, an article by Samuel Eisenhandler.

Eyes of the Void

After eighty years of fragile peace, the Architects are back, wreaking havoc as they consume entire planets. In the past, Originator artefacts – vestiges of a long-vanished civilization – could save a world from annihilation. This time, the Architects have discovered a way to circumvent these protective relics. Suddenly, no planet is safe.

Facing impending extinction, the Human Colonies are in turmoil. While some believe a unified front is the only way to stop the Architects, others insist humanity should fight alone. And there are those who would seek to benefit from the fractured politics of war – even as the Architects loom ever closer.

Idris, who has spent decades running from the horrors of his past, finds himself thrust back onto the battlefront. As an Intermediary, he could be one of the few to turn the tide of war. With a handful of allies, he searches for a weapon that could push back the Architects and save the galaxy. But to do so, he must return to the nightmarish unspace, where his mind was broken and remade.

What Idris discovers there will change everything.

In the evening I started in Eyes of the Void, book 2 in The Final Architecture trilogy by Adrian Tchaikovsky.